Properties of the EM

What is a property ?

A property is an element that defines a quality of the object to be represented. Properties include


The existence property contains the wisdom of the existence of an element.

According to the kind of US-node it is connected to, it can be implicit or to be made explicit. An implicit existence is not mandatory nor suggested, an explicit existence should be declared.

An implicit existance is in the case of US/USM that are real elements you can see and touch. The same thing happens with the USV/s nodes that represents elements whose existence property is certain.

Examples of existence to be made explicit are USD, USV/n and VSF whose certainty of existence should be justified by mentioning the main proof we have.


The geometry property defines the dimensions of the object (length, width, thickness, shape). Within the Extended Matrix, the geometry property can be defined, for example, by a floor plan or photogrammetric model of the area to be reconstructed.


Placement is the property that defines the exact location of geometry, either in local or global coordinates. The main sources from which to infer the positioning property of geometry are technical drawings, excavation plans, and photogrammetric models.


Material property defines the material(s) of which the object is made. This characteristic can be inferred from various sources, such as excavation reports, ancient sources etc.


The color property defines the original color(s) of the object. As with the Material property, it can be defined from excavation reports and ancient sources.


The shape of an object is a fundamental property for its reconstruction. In cases where the object has been preserved in its entirety, its shape can be inferred from photographs, surveys, drawings and descriptions. In the case where it has not been preserved, it can be inferred from ancient written and iconographic sources or from studies of the Type of the artifact.


The measurements of an object (height, width and depth) define its size and volume.


The type property defines the classification of the object based on basic taxonomic criteria that are common to a group of artifacts, such as shape, material, decoration etc.


Decoration is a feature of the surface of an artifact. It can be made during the production of the object (e.g. mold decoration, relief decoration etc.) or after it (e.g. graffiti) and can be a useful feature for dating it. The sources to draw on for the decoration property are varied, and depend on the nature of the object being examined: they include ancient sources as well as excavation reports, studies of the classification and typology of finds in a context, photogrammetric surveys etc.


Interpretation is the property that defines the function of an object or the reason for an action within the context that is to be reconstructed. Information on interpretation can be gathered from excavation reports.